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- Sell (goods) in large quantities at low prices to be retailed by others
- sweeping: ignoring distinctions; "sweeping generalizations"; "wholesale destruction"
- (shutter) a hinged blind for a window
- Close the shutters of (a window or building)
- Close (a business)
- (shutter) a mechanical device on a camera that opens and closes to control the time of a photographic exposure
- (shutter) close with shutters; "We shuttered the window to keep the house cool"
- Any of a number of conifers that typically yield fragrant, durable timber, in particular
- durable aromatic wood of any of numerous cedar trees; especially wood of the red cedar often used for cedar chests
- any of numerous trees of the family Cupressaceae that resemble cedars
- any cedar of the genus Cedrus
Holy Valley and Cedars Forest
The Kadisha Valley (also known as Qadisha Valley, Wadi Qadisha, Ouadi Qadisha, or ???? ?????? in Arabic) lies within the Becharre and Zgharta Districts of the North Governorate of Lebanon. The valley is a deep gorge carved by the Kadisha River, also known as the Nahr Abu Ali when it reaches Tripoli. Kadisha means "Holy" in Aramaic, and the valley, sometimes called the Holy Valley, has sheltered Christian monastic communities for many centuries.
The long, deep Qadisha Valley is located at the foot of Mount al-Makmal in northern Lebanon. Through it the Holy River, Nahr Qadisha, runs for 35km from its source in a cave (grotto) a little way below the Forest of the Cedars of God. The sides of the valley are steep cliffs that contain many caves, often at more than 1000m and all difficult of access. The most scenic section of the valley stretches for approximately twenty kilometers between Bsharri (????), the hometown of Kahlil Gibran, and Tourza (?????).
It is here also that the Holy River, Nahr Qadisha, flows, its source being in a sacred mountain celebrated in the Scriptures.
[The Cedars of God
The Kadisha Valley is nearby the Forest of the Cedars of God, survivors of the ancient Cedars of Lebanon, the most highly prized building materials of the ancient world. The forest is said to contain 375 individual trees, two claimed to be over 3000 years old, ten over 1000 years, and the remainder at least centuries-old. The Lebanon Cedar (Cedrus Libani) is described in ancient works on botany as the oldest tree in the world. It was admired by the Israelites, who brought it to their land to build the First and the Second temples in Jerusalem. Historical sources report that the famous cedar forests were beginning to disappear at the time of Justinian in the 6th century AD.
The Qadisha Valley’s many natural caves have been used as shelters and for burials back as far as the Palaeolithic period. The Aassi Hauqqa (cave) in particular, near Hawqa, Lebanon, has yielded archaeological items indicating Palaeolithic, Roman, and medieval periods of use.
Since the early centuries of Christianity the Holy Valley has served as a refuge for those in search of solitude. Historians believe that the Kadisha Valley has had monastic communities continuously since the earliest years of Christianity.
Early Christian sects fleeing persecution found refuge in the Kadisha. Among these groups were the Jacobites (Syrian Orthodox), Melchites (Greek Orthodox), Nestorians, Armenians, and even Ethiopians. The Maronites, however, are the dominant Christian sect in the valley. From the late 7th century, Syrian Maronites fled to the valley from their original areas of settlement in the Orontes Valley. At that time, they feared persecution from the Byzantines, who accused the Maronites of supporting monothelitism. Maronite settlement intensified in the 10th century following the destruction of the Monastery of St Maron. The Maronite monks established their new center at Qannubin, in the heart of the Qadisha, and monasteries quickly spread over the surrounding hills. Early Maronite settlement in the valley combined both community and eremitic life.
The Mameluk sultans Baibars and Qalaoun led campaigns in 1268 and 1283, respectively, against the fortress-caves, monasteries, and the surrounding villages. Despite these attacks, the Deir Qannubin monastery was to become the seat of the Maronite Patriarch in the 15th century and to remain so for 500 years. In the 17th century, the Maronite monks’ reputation for piety was such that many European poets, historians, geographers, politicians, and clergy visited and even settled in the Qadisha. The first printing press of the Ottoman Empire was built in 1610 at the Monastery of Qozhaya in the Kadisha valley. It used Syriac characters.
Eight well preserved natural mummies of Maronite villagers dating back to around 1283 A.D. were uncovered by a team of speleologists in the Qadisha Valley in 1991. These were found is the 'Asi-al Hadath cave along with a wealth of artifacts.
The Kadisha (Holy) Valley is the site of some of the most ancient Christian monastic communities of the Middle East. The valley’s natural caves, being comfortless, scattered, and difficult to access, provided monks and hermits sufficiently isolated and inhospitable conditions to live out Christian solitude, contemplation, and devotion. Many of the caves and irregularities in the cliff-sides were adapted to serve as individual dwellings (cells), chapels, and monasteries, and such buildings were further carved out of the cliff faces of the valley. Some have interiors covered with frescoes and facades. Around the caves there are terraced fields made by the hermits for growing grain, grapes, and olives.
While there are numerous monasteries in the valley, there are several main monastic complexes:
The Qannubin Monastery (Deir Qannubin (??? ??????)), is on the northeast side of the Qadisha Valley. It is the oldest of the Maron
Ouadi Qadisha-Lebanon Cedar
Flight Saudia Beirut-Dahran
Lebanon Cedar is an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 40 m (130 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) diameter. The crown is conic when young, becoming broadly tabular with age with more or less level branches. The shoots are dimorphic, with long shoots and short shoots.
Cedar of Lebanon was important to various civilizations. The trees were used by the ancient Phoenicians for building trade and military ships, as well as houses and temples. The Egyptians used its resin for mummification, and its sawdust was found in the pharaoh's tombs. The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh designates the cedar groves of Lebanon as the dwelling of the gods to where Gilgamesh ventured. They once burned cedar in their ceremonies. Jewish priests were ordered by Moses to use the bark of the Lebanon Cedar in circumcision and treatment of leprosy. Isaiah used the Lebanon Cedar as a metaphor for the pride of the world. According to the Talmud, Jews once burned Lebanese cedar wood on the Mount of Olives to announce the new year. Kings far and near requested the wood for religious and civil constructs, the most famous of which are King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem and David's and Solomon's Palaces. It was also used by Romans, Greeks, Persians, Assyrians and Babylonians.
Historically, extensive deforestation has occurred, with only small remnants of the original forests surviving. Deforestation has been particularly severe in the Lebanon and Cyprus; on Cyprus, only small trees up to 25 m (82 ft) tall survive, though Pliny the Elder recorded cedars 40 m (130 ft) tall there. Extensive reforestation of cedar is carried out in the Mediterranean region, particularly Turkey, where over 50 million young cedars are being planted annually. The Lebanese populations are also now expanding through a combination of replanting and protection of natural regeneration from browsing by goats.
The Lebanon Cedar has always been the national emblem of Lebanon, and it is seen on the Lebanese Flag. It is also the main symbol of the Cedar Revolution, along with many political parties in Lebanon such as the Kataeb, the National Liberal Party and the Lebanese Forces.
As a result of long exploitation, very few old trees remain in Lebanon, but there is now an active program to conserve and regenerate the forests. The forest of the Cedars of God in Bsharri and the Barouk forest are national reserves in Lebanon.
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